Hematüri | Op. Dr. Nureddin Çelik


What Causes Hematuria?

Hematuria is defined as the appearance of blood in the urine. It is known to be a condition that can occur in men or women of almost any age. Although the effect of bleeding is often not dangerous, it is a cause for concern. It can occur due to any organ in the urinary tract system such as kidney, bladder, ureter. However, it can often be a sign of a serious illness. Therefore, it must be checked. This is only a symptom and an examination is performed to identify the underlying disease.

What is Hematuria?

Hematuria is the name given to the appearance of blood in the urine. Generally, it does not cause much harm, but in some cases it can be a symptom of a serious disease. It is also known as the blood that is clearly visible while urinating. The blood seen when examining under the microscope is called microscopic hematuria. In both senses, the cause of this blood needs to be determined. It is also known that it can occur due to different reasons. The reason is revealed by a detailed examination by looking at the organs in the urinary tract system.

Why Does Blood Come From the Urine?

The question “Why does blood come from the urine?” is among the curious topics. This condition is called hematuria and can occur due to many different reasons. However, even if there is no serious problem, this blood can be seen. To find out, a detailed examination is recommended. Conditions that may lead to bleeding are listed as follows:

Urinary tract infections

Urinary tract stone disease

Prostate enlargement

Kidney diseases

Kidney, bladder and prostate cancer

Sickle cell anemia and alport syndrome

Hereditary diseases

After heavy exercise

Some cancer medications

Usage of the penicillin and the blood thinners

Kidney injuries caused by accident or impact

Urinary tract infections: These infections occur when bacteria enter your body through the urethra and multiply in your bladder. Symptoms can include a constant urge to urinate, pain during urination, burning, and extremely strong-smelling urine. For some people, especially older adults, the only sign of illness may be microscopic blood in the urine.

Kidney infections (pyelonephritis): Kidney infections can occur when bacteria enter your kidneys from your bloodstream or pass through your ureters to your kidneys. Signs and symptoms are often similar to bladder infections, but kidney infections are more likely to cause fever and pain in the flank area of ​​the body.

Bladder or kidney stone: Minerals in concentrated urine sometimes form crystals in the walls of your kidneys or bladder. Over time, the crystals can become small, hard stones. Stones are usually painless, so you probably won’t realize that you have a kidney stone unless it causes a blockage or is thrown out of your system. Bladder or kidney stones can also cause both massive and microscopic bleeding.

Prostate enlargement: The prostate gland, located just below the bladder and surrounding the upper part of the urethra, usually enlarges as men approach middle age. It then compresses the urethra, partially blocking the flow of urine. Signs and symptoms of an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH) include difficulty urinating, an urgent or persistent need to urinate, and visible or microscopic blood in the urine. A prostate infection (prostatitis) can cause the same signs and symptoms.

Kidney diseases: Microscopic urinary bleeding is a common symptom of glomerulonephritis, an inflammation of the kidneys’ filtering system. Glomerulonephritis may be part of a systemic disease such as diabetes or may occur on its own. Immune issues such as viral or strep infections, blood vessel diseases (vasculitis), and IgA nephropathy, which affects the small capillaries that filter blood in the kidneys (glomeruli), can trigger glomerulonephritis.

Cancer: Visible urinary bleeding may be a sign of advanced kidney, bladder, or prostate cancer. Unfortunately, in the early stages, when these cancers are more treatable, you may not have signs or symptoms.

Hereditary disorders: Sickle cell anemia, an inherited hemoglobin defect in red blood cells, causes both visible and microscopic hematuria in the urine.

Kidney damage: A blow or other injury to your kidneys from an accident or contact sport can cause visible blood in your urine.

Medicines: The anti-cancer drug cyclophosphamide and penicillin can cause urinary bleeding. If you take an anticoagulant such as aspirin and the blood-thinning heparin and you have a condition that causes your bladder to bleed, you may sometimes see blood in your urine.

Excessive exercise: It is rare for excessive exercise to cause massive hematuria and the cause is unknown. Bladder trauma induced by continuous aerobic exercise may be associated with dehydration or breakdown of red blood cells.

What are the Causes of Hematuria?

While hematuria may be due to simple diseases, in some cases it may occur as a result of serious disease. Some of the situations that cause it to occur are as follows:

Urinary tract infections: It enters the body through the urethra and multiplies in the bladder part. It causes burning and pain sensation while urinating.

Kidney infections: Symptoms are similar to a bladder infection. It can cause fever and pain.

Bladder and kidney stones: Minerals in the urine can turn into tiny crystals. In this case, it leads to stone formation.

Enlarged prostate: It is a condition that can be seen in middle-aged men. It can cause difficulty in urination and blood in the urine.

Kidney disease


Hereditary disorders

Kidney damage


Heavy exercise

What are Urinary Tract Infections?

Urinary tract infection is known as infections in any part of the urinary tract, from the kidneys and ureters to the bladder and urinary tract. There is no microbe in the urine of a person who is in good health. Cystic disease is the most common bladder infection among urinary tract infections. These infections are listed as follows:




What is Hematuria Treatment?

Depending on the cause of hematuria, the treatment method varies. First, the patient is examined and examined in detail. As a result of the data obtained, a treatment is applied for the disease caused by hematuria. If it is a condition that can be improved with drug treatment, certain drugs are given to the patient. However, in some cases, surgical methods may be used depending on the disease. Since the underlying cause may be serious, it must be checked. At the same time, in some cases, no underlying cause is found and no harmful situation occurs. In such cases, there is no need for treatment.

Depending on the condition causing the hematuria, treatment may include taking antibiotics to clear up the urinary tract infection, taking a prescription medication to shrink the enlarged prostate, or receiving shock wave therapy to break up bladder or kidney stones. In some cases, no treatment is required. You should have check-ups with your doctor after treatment to make sure there is no blood in your urine.

When Should You See a Doctor?

If you see blood in your urine, you need to make an appointment to see your doctor. Certain medications, such as laxatives, and certain foods, such as beets and strawberries, can cause your urine to turn red. The change in urine color caused by drugs, food, or exercise will go away on its own within a few days. Except for these cases, a physician should be consulted in cases of blood in the urine.

How Long Does Hematuria Treatment Take?

Depending on the underlying cause of hematuria, which treatment will be applied is determined. Therefore, the time varies for each patient.

I’ve started working as a doctor since I attended Uludağ University Faculty of Medicine. I stopped working in the hospitals in 2020 with the thought of opening my own medical clinic. At the beginning of 2022, I opened my office in Karşıyaka Mavişehir Park Yaşam Ofisleri. In our urology clinic, I deal with my patients along with my team.


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